Lee Garrett

A teaching and learning journey through PE


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My Quest for Effective CPD

I have been in post as leader of CPD for nearly a year now, and this has been my first post in a long time partly due to this fact. My school is an international school which hosts EYFS through to P16. My role as leader of CPD is to coordinate CPD through the entire school! I am not on the SLT which has its positives and negatives but working between the Primary SLT and Secondary SLT has been quite time consuming along with the current duties as HOD. The hardest part of this role has certainly been trying to create a provision that fits in with the vision of the school. However, being given a free reign and using the research available to produce a provision almost entirely from a blank starting point has certainly been challenging thought-provoking and engaging.

Before I started this post, I was lucky enough to jump on a 3 day leading CPD course which quite honestly has been one of the most effective externally led courses I’ve been on, as it gave me the knowledge, tools and insight into creating effective provision for professional learning. Since going on that course, I have read vast amounts of research and evidenced based articles regarding CPD and evaluation in particular and I am now on a path of reading further into the wider field of research in teaching and learning. Being overseas can certainly be lonely in terms of keeping up to date with the fast pace of education and policy changes but this has been made possible and more accessible thanks to the Twittersphere and the Livestreams (ResearchED and Teachmeets for example).

This is my first year in attempting at changing the culture of CPD towards a higher quality of provision through the use of the trojan mouse effect – small focused changes which can be far reaching. My whole year has been based on trying to create a bottom up, personalised approach in providing professional learning and because of the nature of the environment that we live in has been centred largely around collaboration thanks to the 2003 CUREE review on the impact of collaborative CPD Teaching and Learning – here and the many blogs and tweets I’ve encountered. The review consisted of combing through some 13,479 titles and reading 266 studies. Of that they found 72 studies that carried some relevance and then assessed again in terms of their weight of evidence that left 15 studies from around the world. In summary, collaborated CPD was linked to improvements in teaching and learning and reported that some of the improvements were substantial towards students and teachers.

There were behavioural changes to teachers including an enthusiasm to work collectively, a reduction in anxiety with regards to feedback and greater confidence as well as a greater belief that teacher could actually make a difference to student achievement. For students, there was evidence of enhanced motivation, increased quality of response to questions, improved performance (test results) and an overall wider experience of different learning activities.

Below is a reflection and summary on the strategies and interventions I have started this year in the quest for promoting effective CPD provision.

Strategy #1

Whole school meeting – Primary AND Secondary:

A copy of the slides in PDF format can be viewed here: http://goo.gl/Vf9jZg

Here I used some of Prof J Hattie’s research to try and make the point that the teacher has the highest number of effects which can affect student achievement and learning. I then went on to talk about the blog (Alex Quigley – HuntingEnglish.com) and the OK Plateau which sort of led me to research Joshua Foer. I think it was at this point where I felt personally people were becoming more reflective about their own practice and how much they had developed over their teaching career. This lead on nicely to a slight detour as I had come across the work of John Fisher and the process of transition. I showed them this slide http://goo.gl/G6nrtt which highlights the emotional change people may go through for effective change to occur. The main reason for doing this was to try and counteract some of the negativity I was anticipating with the changes I had planned. I think at the time, it would have had some impact but would certainly need revisiting to sustain a positive ethos towards professional learning. There was certainly a good vibe and an air of optimism after the meeting which was good because the following day there was another CPD strategy. See below.

Strategy #2

Internal Teachmeet

An internal Teachmeet. For the vasty majority of staff, they had heard of Teachmeets but had never attended one. So for the first week of INSET, we held our own (with a slight difference). Four primary and secondary staff randomly had 3 minutes to share their idea BUT they had been briefed not to go into too much detail because afterwards, staff voted on their top 2 preferences for further exploration of that idea in a classroom. This worked perfectly because it allowed teachers to engage in questioning to further their understanding. For example, one member of the primary staff used imotion HD and spent an extra 20minutes supporting staff in using the software in a ICT classeroom. After the 20minutes workshop was over staff went onto their second preference. For that 90 minute session, staff were engaged and already some of the more ‘reserved’ members actually vocally approved of the small event.

Strategy #3

Teaching & Learning Bulletin

Quite simply I have put together “The SES T&L Bulletin”. A simple document which is emailed to all staff – once a month. Inside are blog articles (with permission!), ideas on AFL, research, and general tips and ideas picked up.

Strategy #4

Lead Practitioner

Lead by the SSAT, there are currently 9 members of staff who are driving pedagogical change through the school to improve teaching and  learning. This has been kindly part funded (50%) by the school and is working towards a whole school improvement. This is evidenced based and once achieved, the accreditation can then go towards a masters degree. The programme involves those to attend 6 school based lectures, carryout an action research project and a coaching module evidence impact.

Strategy #5

Personalising through small T&L groups

I conducted a staff survey on CPD provision. This was to try and gain some insight into the needs and develop a bottom up approach model. The questionnaire which went out was based (at that time) on the new Sept 2012 teacher standards. The intent here was to pick out staffs strengths and weaknesses and create a programme personalising CPD to their needs. This started shortly after the Christmas break but prior to that and in conjunction with the Primary SLT we initiated the planning by using various review tools and using the coaching skill-will matrix (Max Lundsberg) identified staff to help change the culture of an outdated CPD approach to a more collaborative one. One term I came across during the CPD Leaders course was through a research paper (McKinzie Report), Prescribe Adequacy – Unleash Greatness. Headteacher, Tom Sherrington in a similar way describes his unleashing greatness of his staff by using a rainforest analogy and allowing personalisation to characterise the provision of CPD – here. Rather than constraining staff to a linear path he envisages staff taking risks and creative opportunities without being too restrictive.  I wouldn’t say that we have unleashed greatness just yet or that our rainforest is growing wildly out of control but their is certainly some growth and momentum and hopefully this can all be showcased for the purpose of improving student achievement. Slowly, I have experienced particular members of staff who have surprised me with their willingness to come forward and share with me their teaching and learning accounts in the classroom. A possible sign that the wheel is turning.

With the needs of the colleagues now collated, the Primary SLT identified members of staff to lead a mini T&L group with a specific focus: Implementing the new Primary Curriculum, AFL strategies and success criteria. Over the past couple of months staff have been busy trialling, collaborating, exploring, implementing ideas based on their focus. To share the findings, staff will be presenting to the SLT and the rest of the Primary school where hopefully this will shape future practice. Early indications from feedback suggests that this has been a useful approach but need to re-consider group sizes in future.

Strategy #6

CPD Tues Briefing

Within the primary sector, briefing is on a Sunday and the secondary school, everyday but on Tuesday this is known as CPD Sun/Tues. After all the reminders have been shared out, CPD briefing kicks in. Basically, all staff were entered into a random generator and one person is picked out to share one teaching and learning idea that they use. For most people this is one of the highlights of the week as it breaks up the monotonous morning briefings that we have on a daily basis and the more interactive they are, the more entertaining and interesting they are at 7:30 in the morning. This has now evolved to sharing 2 ideas. One person who is randomly chosen and one person who volunteers to share a revision strategy.

Strategy #7

Triple Tuesday

We have just recently gone through ALL the staff (randomly) and rather than going through a second cycle I have revamped the day to Triple Tuesday. Staff have to group together (voluntarily) in threes where there are at least 2 different departments represented. Each group then decides on a focus e.g. effective starters. This then becomes the focus for the week for the entire secondary school and the three staff involved also share ideas associated with that focus and a small checklists to refresh the importance. With 2 different departments represented this should ensure that the ideas are cross curricular and not subject specific.

Evaluation

On of the hardest tasks has been measuring the impact of the strategies which is reliable and valid. I have sent out a staff survey via Google Forms where they describe the impact of the various strategies which they have had in the classroom. This has been interesting as you gain an insight into the kind of strategies that have made a difference which I suppose will now help to further embed a positive culture and ethos. The second evaluation method is based on Thomas Guskey’s model of Evaluating Professional Development. This is based on; the learning made by the staff member, the additional support/change needed from the school, the impact of staff’s use of new skills/behaviour and the student’s outcome which is then followed up 6 weeks later to test the real impact or see if it is just another flash in the pan idea but soon forgotten. This is by no way the perfect evaluation model but when browsing over the data, it does give a good picture on the range of quality of CPD including external provision which appears to be working and perhaps needs to be focused on to sustain the enthusiasm.

Final thoughts

My intention was to start small and build up the CPD provision for the school. For me getting staff to understand the OK Plateu shared by Alex Quigley – read here and doing some self-reflection has been key. And most people agreed with the concept but getting staff out of their comfort zone and taking risks is a bigger challenge than first thought. Changing the attitude of what CPD ‘used to be’ to now what ‘effective CPD is’ will certainly be my challenge for the remainder of the year and the next I suspect. But reading the feedback it is appearing to be not a lack of desire or will but  actually sustaining the enthusiasm as it gets lost amongst all the other newly introduced processes, pressures, deadlines and polices. For me collaboration has been vital. In an international setting, we are not bombarded so much with the huge CPD advertising and therefore external courses are not as widely available, which is not a bad thing as it encourages me to use the expertise within the school. For the future, I would like to see the secondary school become more involved with research and enquiry based practices. With the Lead Practitioner’s course, we have members of staff who is currently working through this course and would be an ideal opportunity to lead others through this action research process. CPD is not yet a central part of the school system for various reasons. We do not have allocated time for INSET training and therefore building that all important time capacity is much needed. How we do this could be through being creative with the curriculum and continue persevering with trying to personalise professional learning, develop independent enquiry in the hope to sustain the engagement of professional learning.


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SOLO TAXONOMY

I have been using SOLO Taxonomy since Sept 2012 and I have to say that generally it has been absolute key element to  my classroom teaching. As a PE teacher, I decided to use SOLO in my theory classes, GCSE and A Level and my first inspiration was David Fawcett (@davidfawcett27). It was after discovering his blog that I then started chasing people on twitter and people’s blogs making sure that understood the language. After reading the brilliant Tait Coles (@Totallywired77), I was certain that I was not going to visibly associate a level descriptor or grade against the learning taxonomy. I know some people do and thats fine, but I feel that with my particular students, they get too hung up on what grade or level they are currently working on and ignore the importance of utilising feedback and working towards developing that growth mindset. The students do know however that relational learning is the threshold they should at least be aiming for and to be honest without the public grades, the students use the appropriate language when using SOLO as an exit ticket.

So for those reading this, and wondering what on earth is SOLO all about, I will talk about the presentation I did at a Teachmeet that I participated in and which I ran out of bloody time!

SOLO ( Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes) Biggs & Collins

SOLO is a taxonomy for teaching and learning. It has similarities to Blooms (taxonomy for thinking) which I still use to help frame differentiated questions.

To get people to understand the SOLO taxonomy, I used the example of a sandwich. The AW Sandwich! Here goes:

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Prestructural – I have no ideas about the AW sandwich, I need help to describe it.

At this level of learning, students will have no idea what it is that is being learned and therefore will need help to build the language, terminology and basic factual blocks of information in order to progress. Unless you are the chef who designed this culinary delight I am probably guessing that most people reading this will be at this level.

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Uni-Structural – I have 1 idea about the AW Sandwich. I know 1 ingredient/characteristic of the AW Sandwich.

For those of you wanting to learn all about this sandwich, you now know that the main ingredient is a slice of wagyu beef tenderloin.

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Multi-structural – I have several ideas about the AW Sandwich. You know the main ingredients.

As previously stated, this sandwich contains a slice of wagyu beef tenderloin, a poached quails egg, rocket lettuce, seared foie gras, black truffle mayonnaise, crispy strip of turkey bacon and finally heirloom tomatoes.

When planning the learning objectives and the success criteria, there are key verbs to help (this is where it is similar to Blooms)

For example: define, list, name, state, describe, and identify.
PE exam question: State 2 factors that will cause optimum weight to vary between between individuals in the same event (2 marks)
LG example: Describe how hungry you after after knowing the ingredients of the AW Sandwich.

The next two levels are the most important ones. For my subject, this is where the big marks are allocated and usually found in the differentiated questions. However if a student can identify a relational or extended abstract question and understand how to approach answering them correctly and recall and link the correct knowledge then they are well on their way to achieving and demonstrating their learning.

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Relational: I can connect and relate relevant ideas and learning. I can explain why these ingredients are used and how they compliment each other.

In classical French cooking, the beef and foie gras form part of the Tournedos Rossini dish and are used together for texture and balance of flavour. Using wagyu beef takes this to the next level. The rocket lettuce adds a crisp texture and the peppery flavour balances out flavours of other ingredients.

The verbs to help the learning at the Relational stage include, compare and contrast, sequence, classify, explain, analyse.

PE exam: Explain the requirements of a balanced diet (4marks)

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Extended Abstract: I can look at the ideas in a new way and make links to other concepts.

The AW Sandwich as described was on the menu in a hotel in the UAE, hence the turkey bacon. BUT what if we were in the Caribbean? How might the sandwich change? Would we swap the wagyu beef for Canadian lobster? The black truffle mayo for Beluga caviar? How would the sandwich fit within a dinner party? What colour wine would you use if eating at 1pm as opposed to 7pm?

As you can see this is a lot more about making generalisations, predicting , evaluating, hypothesise, create.

A2 PE Exam: Outline the possible causes of spectator violence at sporting events and explain how the law aims to protect them (14marks)

Hexagons

One well documented tool for using SOLO is the use of hexagons. Here each hexagon is used as an idea (uni/multi-structural). On each hexagon an idea is written down and to advance the learning connections are made (relational) by placing the hexagons side by side.


To further enhance the learning, students need to make connections to new concepts. Using different coloured hexagons which represents different concepts and making connections, students are on their way to developing learning at an Extended Abstract level.

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The Web

I have been devising other ways to engage the students into making connections and facilitating students to become more deeper learners and deeper thinkers. One way myself and colleagues have explored is the spiders web. As a revision lesson the aim was to answer this question which was generated by @revisePE on Twitter:

David is a swimmer who competes around the country. Suggest some of the influences of participation that has helped him get to this level

In groups, students worked on an individual concept. For example one group worked on factors influencing participation, others worked on Sport England, Youth Sport Trust, National Governing Bodies, and the performance pyramid, five groups in total.

Starting with a multi-structural task, groups had to write as many ideas (1 idea per piece of paper) and make Relational connections/links within that topic by drawing the connections on the table. Each group then moved around the classroom (carousel style) and contributed where appropriate to each topic.

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Then armed with a load of string, new connections across the room were made to link ideas from different topics. As an extension task, students had to answer the question which was on the whiteboard throughout the lesson.

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As time was running out from the lesson, each person had to think of 2 E.A connections and discuss this with a partner and then to the whole group. What came out of the whole group discussion was that even more connections and deeper thinking emerged as fresh ideas came to light.  All ideas were photographed and made into a PDF as a resource on Edmodo.

The progression from multi-structural to E.A is not an easy one and should take time to reach. I admit that I do not always get to E.A in my lessons and sometimes don’t even plan to get to the deepest level of learning (mainly due to time issues). But what I have found is that where appropriate, the E.A level creates new opportunities for learning to occur, engages the students as they are being stretched out of their comfort zone which as research has shown increases rate of learning and allows students to grow in confidence as they can connect information easily and accurately from a wider perspective.

The Power of Feedback

One of the strongest applications SOLO has is its use as a feedback tool. I have particularly found this useful in A2 PE theory lessons where students are explicitly shown via the whiteboard where they are now, where do they need to get to and how will they get there. This can be shown to the students quite easily with a rubic success criteria or simply stated on the board.

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Certainly with my A-level group, we have moved up and down the taxonomy several times before reaching our final destination of learning and this is the beauty of the taxonomy. There is a saying which I really find true to its word;

feedback to feedforward

And SOLO helps you to facilitate effective feedback in order for you and the students to move forward towards deeper learning. This notion of feeding back to feedforward had really helped my understanding and use of SOLO.

And finally planning. I have already mentioned that uni and multi-structural is more quantitative and relational and extended abstract more qualitative. David Fawcett (@davidfawcett27) wrote a great piece on his blog about planning to get to extended abstract and it is something which I fully agree with. He notioned the fact that you dont have to keep to the linear path of working systematically from unistructure to E.A. Why not start from the bigger picture first? This makes perfect sense to me.  I used to plan from bottom up; uni – multi – rel, and then admittedly struggled to see how this fitted in with the bigger picture. Now I much prefer to work using the top – down approach. With the adapted 5 min lesson plan by @teachertoolkit, its far easier to plan the bigger picture first (what do you really want the students to understand) and then plan the foundation of ideas. Darren Mead wrote on his Sharing Pedagogical Purposes blog “who would buy the best high revolution precision cutter, and then decide what to make“. And this is the point I am trying to make. What is the main deep learning foci that is your target? What key ideas, learning tasks do you need to learn to understand the goal objective? As Darren calls it backfill the building blocks.

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I am certainly still a novice playing with this teaching and learning concept and there is much more I could write about but my final thought on this is that the more risk you take in being creative, engaging and ambitious in leading students to the path of deeper learning, the higher the quality of teaching and learning and the more satisfying your job becomes. Anyone for a sandwich??


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‘Crossover’ Cooperative Learning Structure in Rugby

In my quest of delivering #realpe lessons, I have recently been focusing on

1) reducing teacher talk

2) lean towards a more guided discovery approach.

I have publicised the benefits of using the cooperative learning model and the various structures on this blog. Today, I used a Kagan structure called Crossover which was used in Rugby. 

Tackling in rugby is something which, I can quite easily omit from lessons and leave for the extra curricular activities for those who want to develop their rugby skills. But this particular class (year 5 boys) love to be stretched, are very competitive and the lower ability students like to embrace challenge  so I decided to try something different other than my ‘traditional’ command style (safety conscious) rugby session.

In groups of 3, Independently warming up, students applied a pulse raiser (rugby specific), stretch and specific skill practice.

After a quick Think-TRI-Share structure, it emerged that most students felt comfortable with the key points and so demonstrating the side on tackle (on knees only) became my hinge task on which way to advance the lesson.

Whenever I ask students to get into groups, this is normally what happens.

1) All the friends (usually similar ability) get together

2) All the competitive ones who MUST win get together

3) Those who struggle (socially and/or physically) get together

And so a continuum of differing abilities, skills, personalities emerge which reflected on the quality range of work produced. So now it was the time to use the Crossover structure to raise progress and continue to use and develop skills other than practical based ones. The Crossover structure is an extremely simple format where students rotate in a specific direction. Shown below:

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In groups, they numbered themselves 1-3, and then ALL number 1s moved 1 place to the right and ALL number 3s moved 1 place to the left. Extremely simple to administer but extremely effective. 

I continued to encourage the groups to work together applying the key points of the tackle and then shortly introduced a task to compare and contrast the similarities and differences between the front on tackle and the side on tackle. To be honest, the process of thinking, collaboration and analysing was more important than the actual success of the performance and students were rewarded for the level of answering/feedback. 

Initial thoughts at this stage are that, the more able students became leaders through a natural process and not by myself ordering them to take on the leadership role (Taking responsibility). The lower able students were subject to specific feedback by their new peers which enhanced their understanding and confidence (critical feedback). Those that normally get left out/socially rejected suddenly found a new gear to operate in and were engaged although they still had to be monitored for the occasional peer fall out. I’m not sure this would happen with older students.

Back to the Think-Tri-Share structure and this time it was to generate feedback into their understanding and knowledge of comparing two types of tackles. 

After a quick recap and questioning session, I then decided to revert back to the original groups as I felt it would be safer and easier to differentiate the games. The next task was 3v3 with a rugby league type format. To my surprise the level of effort and determination offered by the lower able students was significant. There was a definite resemblance to the technical model offered which more importantly made the skill effective, safe and dare I say fun??? Not to mention the level of knowledge and understanding previously fed back in the lesson

I did have to balance some of the teams but again this was in consultation with both parties involved and at one point I questioned myself as to whether I had ‘stretched’ the students. Yes was the answer. How did I know? They regulated their own game without much confrontation, they wanted to keep playing through their break time, one student requested in private that I do the same next week because he decided he worked better with a particular group as his behaviour had improved.

Finally, this is a great little structure if you want to share or develop information. It randomly mixes groups up creating an environment that can develop leadership, problem solving, decision making/evaluating, I can see that this would be successful in the classroom and in a wide range of activities in PE.

Nb. The Think-Tri-Share is my extended version of Think-Pair-Share. 

 

 


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QFT makes it’s debut

Ever since I read @taitcoles’ blog post on the Question Formulation Technique here, I have been intrigued as to the power of students generating their own questions through this method. More information and resources on the use of QFT can be found at rightquestion.org

So here is my attempt, thoughts and findings.

STEP 1. Create a question focus.

My learning objective was to “devise questions to learn the effects of CO2 on the respiration system SO THAT you know how the body controls breathing rate”

The prompt which I used was a simple statement:

The brain uses CO2 to control breathing rate

STEP 2. Produce your own questions.

The students had to write down as many questions as they could and write them down as it was said. Any statements were changed to questions.

After a quick example, the students produced their questions. Once they got to a point where progress on the questions slowed, we related back to the idea of SOLO Taxonomy and the use of the multistructural building blocks to build up knowledge and understanding. This short discussion gave a few more ideas.

STEP 3. Improve your questions

The students then categorised each question either open or closed and then discussed as a group the advantages and disadvantages of each type of question. What was realised was that the majority of the starting verbs of the questions began with What making it a bit too vague. This gave me the cue to relate to Blooms Taxonomy and the associated verbs for questioning. They began to scribble out the what and write explain, describe, recall etc. It was evident that this helped with catergorising the questions and they were then asked to change the open questions to closed and visa versa.

STEP 4. Prioritise your questions

The 3 most important questions had to be chosen and again discuss why the questions were chosen. Responses here centered the use of carbon dioxide, the use of the brain and the mechanics of breathing.

STEP 5. Next Steps

How are you going to use the questions? How will it make you learn more? How will it make you learn better? I must admit at this stage, I felt a little apprehensive about this method. Yes the students were generating some great questions but it almost felt like they were walking into a room, pitch black with no lights on. I allowed the students to use a text book to extract the answers needed for their questions. One response was, “Sir, is this right?” When I looked at the work, was it right? Indeed, absolutely bang on! All the key terms were used, and it was very concise and accurate. When I looked at another students work, again, very good but through discussion with him, he was still unsure.

I had an activity ready and waiting which was to rearrange some cards in a sequential order to test if learning had occurred. This formative assessment was useful because those that succeeded could move onto an exam question and those that were still unsure, I very briefly went through a flow chart of the control of breathing. If anything, this was to confirm to those students that what they had questioned themselves and written was actually correct. You could see the relief on their face. Now it was my turn to pounce on the students with questions. I suppose I wanted to make sure no stone was left unturned. I was not disappointed. Independent learning had definitely occurred.

STEP 6. Reflect

There was mixed feelings to start with. A bit slow? Maybe because it was the first attempt at using QFT. Was the question focus too vague? Could I have made it easier by providing some other resource to supplement the statement? Could it be that the students were highly stretched and used unknown thinking skills? Have they ever had to use so much thinking power? After all we do know that spoonfeeding does occur to try and get the best results. Spoonfeeding, I would like to add is not in my vocab!

Questioning is certainly powerful and the QFT provides a helpful structure. This lesson provided a huge amount of independent learning and masses amount of thinking power. There was visible learning, group processing and higher order thinking skills.

Next time :

1) Be more creative of how students will use their questions (make more use of the group processing factor)

2) Consider the use of a more informative question focus to help lead the students into questioning. (A very basic screencast maybe?, an article?)

As a teaching tool goes, this one is powerful if used correctly. I can see how this is used for enquiries and PBL but with a bit of tweaking and reflective feedback from the students this teaching method is one to keep.

I would be more than happy to hear of other examples of QFT in learning new information and any suggestions to progress my use of QFT.


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FORE!!!!

I recently read an article written by @bennettscience on the concept of Flipped Classroom and he described it as, “a hybrid of direct instruction and constructivism”.

Now being quite a keen golfer, the term hybrid refers to a club with a combination of an iron and wood characteristics. (These are type of clubs for the non-golfer). But all week the term hybrid has just stuck in my head travelling to and from work and then I started to make analogies of golf clubs and teaching and learning strategies. Don’t know why – Just did.

The Driver – Questioning: The BIG POWER hitter. When used correctly can give you big advantages. When used incorrectly (hook/slice) can slow down progress.  

The Golf Pro – Marginal Gains: An instructor who can make minor changes to improve performance. May use technology, practical drills, and video analysis. Anything to improve performance. Will make minor changes for BIG gains.

The Club House – The Ipad: The club house is a place where you can organise yourself, make bookings, and arrange instruction even order food.

The Score Card – The Exam paper: Summative assessment at the end of the round. Often used to reflect on performance, where improvements can be made.

The Caddie – Cooperative Learning: The caddie (not that I ever will need one with my skills) is used to HELP make decisions, group process and contribute to overall performance. 

The Putter – Feedback: The saying in the golfing world is “drive for show – putt for dough”. Good putting can be the difference of winning and losing. Putting is essential for golfing as feedback is for effective teaching and Learning.

The Golf Bag – Twitter: The golf bag gives you all the tools you need. You can use any club (@follower) you wish depending on the shot you want to hit.

The Golf Course – Project Based Learning: Golf course come in all forms of difficulties, features, environments. To get around the course requires careful shot selection, engages the player, requires problem solving, critical thinking, failure and success.

The Flag/Hole – Learning Objectives: The flag/hole is the target. To get there in the first place requires some criteria. Do you have to avoid bunkers, hit over water, and keep out of the woods.

The Driving Range – Critiquing: Used for practice. Once you receive feedback in the sense of intrinsic, extrinsic, augmented, knowledge of performance or knowledge of results. Allows you to re-draft and shot and tweak.

Feel free to add any more crazy golf analogies.

That’s it, that’s what whizzes around in my head after I go through my daily duties that need to be fulfilled. Just going through this list it occurs to me that teaching and Learning has taken big strides forward. I really enjoy the flexibility of teaching and learning within a student centred environment where they themselves are guided to be creative, inquisitive, reflective and responsible. Now that I have got this off my chest and written, perhaps I can move on to think of something more purposeful. Who knows?